Infection, trauma, and need for orthodontic treatment. In addition, extractions of impacted wisdom teeth are routinely performed to reduce the risk of infection and severe pain.
Extractions are often categorized as Simple or Surgical. Simple extractions are performed on teeth that are visible in the mouth. Simple extractions are not invasive and are completed in a relatively short period. Contrary to the ordinary belief, the teeth are not actually pulled. Instead, during a simple extraction, a tooth is rocked back and forth gently until it is loose enough to be removed.
On the other hand, surgical extractions involve the removal of teeth that are not visible or cannot be easily removed. In some instances, teeth may break leaving a root under the gum. In others, the tooth may not erupt fully through the gum. Finally, a tooth may be split into multiple pieces to facilitate its removal. In all of these cases, tooth extractions will require surgical incision or opening of the gums. Although some surgical extractions may be completed under a local anesthesia, the complex cases may requires a general anesthetic.
Within the hour after the extraction, a blood clot must forms in the socket to facilitate the healing; therefore, slight bleeding is quite common during this first hour. However, it is important to note that small amounts of blood mixed in the saliva after extractions are normal up to several days after extraction. The open gum space will gradually fill in with soft gum tissue over a period of four to six weeks. The final closure of the socket with bone growth can take up to six months or more.